The history of science in our republic has old and rich traditions. Since olden time Kazan was famous as center of education and science. The city reminded in the historical memory of the people as the capital of powerful Kazan Khanate, where many madrasa and richest libraries were concentrated.
The opening of Kazan University in 1804 contributed to the birth of world famous schools of Kazan mathematicians, chemists, astronomers, physicists, orientalists. Brilliant mathematician N.I. Lobachevsky; V.P. Engelgardt, who built and gave the Observatory to Kazan University; Arabist and the founder of eastern numismatics in Russia H.D. Fren; turcologist A.K. Kazembek; founder of the linguistic school Baudouin de Courtenay; chemist K.K. Klaus and many others who lived, worked and received academic recognition in Kazan. Before 1917 there were 19 academicians and 43 honorary members from Kazan in the Russian Academy of Sciences. Our city is considered as the third Russian scientific center after Moscow and St. Petersburg.
To the end of the 1920s republic came close to creating its own Academy of Sciences. The Scientific Society of Tatar Studies was founded in 1925, in fact it was the analogue of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences and unites 98 scientists, including 14 honorary members, 74 Fellows and maintains close relations with more than 120 scientific institutions of the USSR. The Society ceased to exist in 1931.
The traditions of academic schools have been adequately pursued by scientists of the 20th century. It is appropriate to recall the opening of the phenomenon of electron paramagnetic resonance by Kazan physicist E.K. Zavoisky in 1944, studies of S.A. Altshuler, who laid the foundations of quantum acoustics. There was founded a laboratory of nuclear physics, molecular physics began to develop intensively, radio physics arose and school of optics and spectroscopy began to develop. Thanks to the works of A.E. and B. A. Arbuzovs Kazan school of chemists become the largest research center for studying the organophosphorus compounds.
To the time when the Tatarstan Academy of Sciences was founded in 1991 there were 700 doctors in the republic. The existing scientific potential and set the tone for a high standard of requirements for the newly established Academy. It has become a center of responsibility for the definition and coordination of the state policy in the field of science and innovation. The Tatarstan Academy of Sciences is aimed at the development of the humanities, natural sciences and engineering in our republic.
The founder of the Tatarstan Academy of Sciences is the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Tatarstan, which provides funding, organizational and logistical support for the Academy activities. The first president of the TAS and one of its founders was Fellow M.Kh. Khasanov. Fellow A.M. Mazgarov was elected in 2006, as a President of Academy and made great efforts to strengthen the scientific potential of the Republic of Tatarstan. In 2014, the by the Members of TAS General Meeting a Fellow of TAS Department of Physics, Energy and Earth Sciences M. Kh. Salakhov was elected as a President of the Tatarstan Academy of Sciences.
Today the Academy unites 56 Fellows, 59 Corresponding Members, 29 Honorary Members and 15 foreign Members. It is organized on scientific-branch and territorial principles and consists from 7 scientific divisions: Divisions of Humanity, Social and Economic Sciences, Medical and Biological Sciences, Agricultural Sciences, Physics, Energy and Earth Sciences, Mathematics, Mechanics and Machinery, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Division.
In its structure Tatarstan Academy of Sciences unites 7 research institutes (G. Ibragimov Institute of Language, Literature and Art, the Institute Tatar Encyclopedia, Sh. Marjani Institute of History, Institute of Archaeology, Institute of Applied Semiotics, Institute of Ecology and Subsoil Use, Institute of Informatics) and 2 research centers (Center for Family and Demography, Center for Islamic Studies).
Today, the Tatarstan Academy of Sciences focuses on a serious modernization of its structure and activities, working on optimization of activities of the various institutions in the territory of the Republic and engaged in science and innovation.
The definition of priority directions and programs of scientific research academy and its institutes, research centers and laboratories, the decision of scientific and organizational issues of academic institutions are the main activities of the Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, which works in the new structure since 2014.
Tatarstan Academy of Sciences is the founder of some scientific journals “Nauchniy Tatarstan” (Scientific Tatarstan) and “Fәnni Tatarstan”, "Povolzhskaya Arkheologiya", "Archeology of the Eurasian Steppes", "Russian Journal of Applied Ecology".
At the TAS Presidium and its divisions operate Scientific-Technical Councils and Commissions: on Scientific-Technical and Innovation Policy, on Study and Protection of Cultural Heritage, on Selection and Support of Talented Youth, etc.
Serving as a coordinator of scientific researches in the republic TAS in cooperation with universities and industrial research institutions on a competitive basis organize fundamental and applied research within the framework of RFBR and RFH in various scientific fields.
105 students in 18 specialties are training in Post Graduate Program of TAS.
Tatarstan Academy of Sciences has own awards: the State Prize of RT on Science and Technique; Gold and Silver Medals of TAS “For Achievements in Science”, 9 Nominal Prizes: Sh. Marjani Prize (in the field of historical and social sciences), Kh. M. Mushtari Prize (in mathematics and mathematical sciences), G. Kh. Kamay Prize ( in chemistry and chemical technologies) V. A. Engelhardt Prize (in biology), A. G. Teregulov Prize (in the field of medicine and public health), K. G. Bohl Prize (in the field of veterinary), V. P. Mosolov Prize (in the field of agricultural sciences), A. D. Ado Prize (in allergology, immunology and general pathology), G. Ibragimov Prize (in the field of Tatar linguistics and literary studies), 15 scholarships for students of Tatarstan.
Science of Tatarstan is an integral part of the Russian and world science. Among the founders of the Tatarstan Academy of Sciences were Academicians: K.A. Valeev, R.Z. Sagdeev, I. A. Tarchevsky, B.E. Alemasov, A.I. Konovalov. The structure of TAS and its Presidium largely organized as analogy of Russian Academy of Sciences.